Social Media and the First Amendment Rights

Social Media and the First Amendment Rights
In the present-day world, individuals, businesses, governments and non-governmental institutions continue to migrate to the cyberspace to either stay relevant or achieve and sustain a competitive advantage. The benefits of social media around workplaces and private life are numerous. These set of internet tools enables shared community experience, either in person or online. Social media platforms provide timely and cost effective communication. For example, companies can use Twitter and Facebook to publicize meetings and hearings. Social media is also beneficial in the sense that it provides a platform for marketing and networking. In addition, social media can be used to garner support for county or municipal projects. Further, it has the capability to create real-time public information and records on public service or projects. Additionally, it can be used by any party interested in public sector decision making processes, including applicants, non-profit organizations, advocates, developers and governmental entities. Moreover, social media encourages social activism and fosters public participation.
However, these general benefits of social media must be weighed against the probable negative aspects and legal issues surrounding the use of these fairly new technologies (Bennett-Alexander and Hartman 680; Sánchez Abril, Levin and Del Riego 64). These include accuracy and truthfulness of the posted information, lifespan of inaccurate information online and the credibility of the sources of information. Furthermore, there are a number of issues to be considered when employees and public officials choose to utilize these internet tools. Additionally, there are a host of legal issues that emerge when entities choose to use social networking tools. Communication via government or non-government-sponsored or maintained social media sites including posting and comments is likely to be subject to public records laws if it concerns either the organization or government business. This is subject to the fact that the Records Retention laws and the Freedom of Information Act may not specifically mention social media records. Therefore, the parties disseminating public records must be aware that the law may require that they seek permission prior to destroying them or these records are retained indefinitely under public record law. In addition, the law may require that these records are availed upon request. Entities that use social media must recognize the fact that some people do not have access or may not access social media platforms for a variety of reasons. This is meant to ensure that social media is not used in a manner that can hamper the access of information from some groups of the population. For example, people who are physically or mentally challenged should be provided with equal access to information.
One of the most important aspects of social media is that it enhances interaction between employers and employees or the government and the public. Despite this, the interactive feature can become an impending minefield of legal issues for these parties, especially when speech and comments are involved. Given that this area of law is under development, the public sector and employees should act with caution in order to avoid breaching the First Amendment. One of the question raising concerns is whether social media platforms are considered as public forums, and if employers or the government can remove purportedly objectionable comments or posts without implicating the protections under the First Amendment Act.
Social media platform enables users to configure their own privacy settings. However, most of the privacy concerns are applicable to individual but the public should be conscious about this. Privacy issues surrounding social media are still under development through case laws, and this makes them open to debate and subject to further justification (Eastman 2). In conclusion, employers still walk on a tightrope while regulating the content and use of social media by its employees. The law is clear that public employees have controlled or no expectancy of privacy at work (Bennett-Alexander and Hartman 698). Sadly, the law is far from attending to the balance of rights of employers and employees in the context of social media.
As we discuss the legal implications of social media, it is imperative to understand that context is very critical. Entities that employ social media tools face a number of information security legal issues. This includes legal consequences of leaking third party private and confidential information, defamation, breach of an entity’s security and legal risks linked to social engineering and spoofing attacks.
In the case of the City of Ontario, California, et al. v. Jeff Quon et al. (2010), Jeff Quon, an officer at City of Ontario Police (OPD), was disciplined by the OPD for violating its rules. OPD disciplined him after reviewing transcripts of short text messages sent on Jeff Quon’s pager provided by the city (International Association of Chiefs of Police para. 2). Some of the messages that were found on the pager were associated with police business. The city took the review during a regular audit meant to determine whether the character limit for messages configured on the pager was too low. The U.S Supreme Court ruled that the audit was reasonable, and Quon’s Fourth Amendment rights were not violated.
The other illustration of the legal implications of social media is the case of Cromer v. Lexington/Fayette Urban County Government (2009). In this case, officer Cromer posted on website images and language that suggested discredit upon him as a member of the Lexington Division Police. This was after Cromer, a Lexington police officer had arrested singer John Michael for DUI. This arrest had created publicity and increased traffic to the officer’s page on MySpace. The City Council terminated Cromer’s employment for breaching contract. According to the council, Cromer’s posting brought the Division into disgrace. In addition, his operation and efficiency were impaired by the repercussions of his posting. In addition, Cromer posted an altered image portraying him with the singer after arresting him for DUI. Both the Court of Appeals and the trial court ruled that the Council’s was consistent with its rules in its decision to terminate Cromer’s employment for inefficiency, misconduct and insubordination (IACP para.3).

Works Cited
Bennett-Alexander, Dawn D. and Laura P. Hartman. “The Employee’s Right to Privacy and Management of Personal Information.” Bennett-Alexander, Dawn D. and Laura P. Hartman. Employment Law for Business. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012. 630-703.
Eastman, Michael J. “A Survey of Social Media Issues Before the NLRB.” August 2011. United States Chamber. 9 April 2014 .
IACP. “Cromer v. Lexington/Fayette Urban County Government (2009).” 2009. International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). 23 April 2014 .
International Association of Chiefs of Police. “City of Ontario, California, et al. v. Jeff Quon et al. (2010).” 2010. International Association of Chiefs of Police Center For Social Media. 23 April 2014 .
Sanchez Abril, Patricia, Avner Levin and Alissa Del Riego. “Blurred Boundaries: Social Media Privacy and the Twenty-First-Century Employee.” American Business Law Journal 49.1 (2012): 63–124.

white-collar crime

Questions and Answers

Why did Sutherland play such a prominent role in discovering “white-collar crime” in the sense of defining it and making it an object of criminological study?
According to Ferguson (2010), ‘white-collar crime’ is a felony committed by a person of decorum and high societal status in the occupation that he or she does. The definition of the term seeks to encompass the unethical offenses that employees commit in their working areas but with covering their tracks to make it hard to be traced back to them. The term encompasses crimes that are majorly committed with the intention of financial gain that a professional or employee engages in individually. According to Sutherland, the definition and discovery of ‘white-collar crime’ was just the same as any other offense that a regular person would commit. Sutherlands defense and definition of the ‘white-collar crime’ was dependent on three contexts defining crime as per the state laws. Firstly, crime is an illegal act as defined by the law. The offense defined to be ‘white-collar’ crimes are treated the same. However, debates regarding the difference in the handling, prosecution, procedures in court rulings, and sanctions that were done on ‘white-collar’ crimes sought to make them different from other crimes.
The second context was that a corporate crime is an action of individual offenders. Despite the belief of corporate crimes to be held responsible for the whole organization, Sutherland believed that there is a mastermind behind the actions committed. Therefore, the person responsible for the offense is to be held answerable for the charges. Thirdly, a criminal is anybody who violates the law. Therefore, as per Sutherland’s point of view, the perpetrators of ‘white-collar’ crimes were still acting against the requirements of the law thereby making them criminals. These contexts all backed from the state and legal laws make the ‘white-collar’ crimes as part of a study in criminology. Additionally, the context of defining ‘white-collar’ crime makes it an interesting part of a study in the criminal systems.
Describe and explain how feminist scholars succeeded in “gendering criminology” in important ways. Provide some examples to support your response
Different theories have been stated to prove that women are likely to commit a crime just as men. However, the rate at which women commit crime is much less compared to men. The system of ruling as from the 19th century regarded women who were involved in crime as either mentally ill or had a weakness of compliance (Lilly, Cullen, & Ball, 2011). They were then grouped with juvenile delinquents or sent to mental institutions. Nonetheless, the increased numbers of women in the professional jobs have increased the rate in which women take part in white-collar crime, murder, and robberies. As a result, two contexts have become a topic of discussion. Firstly, that those women who have committed crime are treated leniently in processing through the criminal justice system compared to men. Secondly, that those women who have committed crime are treated worse than men are as they have not only committed crime, but also violated their roles and the societal expectations (Stolzenberg & D’Alessio, 2004).
It is on these two contexts that feminist criminologists have drawn their support for criminological treatments of the offenders in different ways. ‘Gender-responsive’ strategy is one approach that was instituted to establish the best way of dealing with the violations that women underwent in the prosecutions and the prisons where they were sent. Another program, ‘Moving On’ influenced by three methods; relational theory, motivational interviewing, and cognitive-behavioral intervention also seek out to identify the threats and requirements of women offenders. The role of the programs is to provide an accommodating, considerate, accepting, collaborative, and exigent environment to women who have been sentenced for criminal charges. Therefore, in their path to ‘gendering criminology’ feminist scholars have made it plain that no theory will be complete if it does not take into account the role of gender in women and men.
Discuss how the conservatism of the 1980s created the context for the revitalization of the classical school and positivists’ theories of holding the individual responsible for their criminal behavior, and the subsequent return to incarceration as the answer to reducing crime.
The conservatism era of the 1980s sought to prevent crime and promote community safety in all ways that could make the programs a success. The increase in criminal activities paved way for the need to devise ways to help achieve safety and security, as a result, the law enforcement agencies determined to identify with approaches that could identify the perpetrators of criminal activities. These methods proved to be of great impact in reducing the level of crime in the 1980s and 1990s. The same principles and methods adapted into the classical schools and positivists’ theories meant a great deal in reducing the level of crimes. When a single individual is apprehended for a mistake, it serves as a lesson to other like-minded individuals in discouraging the same activities. Additionally, when it is clear that law enforcement agencies can narrow down the criminal activities to a single person, then it meant how effective the methods would be it more changes were to be made. Moreover, the failures in the security measures put in place during the conservatism era required a change in the methods of reducing crime and enhancing community safety. Therefore, the classical school and positivists’ determined to identify ways through which fear can be set in the place of correcting or removing the nature of human beings of maximizing pleasure while minimizing pain. Consequently, imprisonment of individuals found guilty of criminal activities was put to place to act as correctional avenues for criminals. On the other hand, the positivists’ theory sought to ensure that a punishment served to fit the offender and not a crime that he or she has committed and in imprisoning the person responsible, the offender is secluded from the public that he or she seeks to harm at his pleasure.
Explain how the Routine Activity Theory is uniquely different from most other criminological theories regarding crime. How does this theory specifically propose to reduce crime?
While other criminological theories purport that it is in the nature of human beings to commit a crime, the routine activity theory suggests that a crime only take place with motivational factors in the environment of an individual. The offender in this case does not strike at once but rather takes time to study the routine of his victim. When they realize that their target is insecure, that is when they strike. Therefore, for a crime to take place there must be an offender with criminal objectives, a targeted victim, and the lack of someone who will intervene the action from taking place (Paternoster & Bachman, 2001). With the nonexistence of one of the three components, the offender is likely not to commit a crime. The theory further provides a prediction of crime rate as related to the changes in the social and economic conditions of individuals. Consequently, the theory postulates that, it is the habits people partakes daily that makes them targets to the rational offender who takes an interest in viewing their activities. The offender is known to follow the same routine as the victim and only takes opportunity when the factors seem favorable for his or her action. Therefore, according to the routine activities theory, the absence of one of the three components that lead to the occurrence of crime is the best way of preventing their occurrence. Additionally, the criminals target those people who are attractive and seem well off; as a result, guarding these individuals makes up another way of preventing criminal activities from happening. When an offender realizes that their target is secure, there is a high possibility that the offense will not take place.
Specifically, explain and discuss the concepts of continuity, change, social interactional and cognitive desistance within the framework of integrated and life-course theories.
Continuity refers to an ongoing process and involvement of an individual in an activity that might lead him or her to committing a crime. In the process, the individual becomes dependent on the illegal activities that he or she does the benefits that they see in taking part in the criminal activities. The development of a character within an individual is dependent on the activities that he or she takes part. In the instance when criminal activities are overlooked with nobody to condemn them, an individual grows integrating the characters in his lifestyle. Change, however, are the alterations in the environments that an individual stays in and the effects that the environment has on his or her development. Factors and influences in the environment help develop either positive or negative traits on individuals. Changes in the social and economic trends of the environment setting come with different characters that are to influence criminal activities or condemn them. The social interactions are traced back to the family units and the differences that they have on the development of an individual and delinquency of an individual. Thus, the economic and collective effect in any social environment reflects a character of either positive or negative to an individual. Thereby, the environment dictates the development characters in an individual as he or she grows. Cognition or independent thought are hampered by the environmental changes that an individual interacts. Each environment in the development process of humans has an effect to the mental development in one way or another. However, this is affected by the negative influences in the environment. An environment that supports criminal activities, however, is geared towards developing the same thoughts and at the same time obstructs other cognitive developments from taking place.

Ferguson, J. E. (2010). White-Collar Crime. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Lilly, J. R., Cullen, F. T., & Ball, R. A. (2011). The Gendering of Criminology. In J. R. Lilly, F. T. Cullen, & R. A. Ball, Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (pp. 256-259). London: Sage Publications.
Paternoster, R., & Bachman, R. (2001). Explaining . Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Stolzenberg, L., & D’Alessio, S. (2004). Sex differences in the likelihood of arrest. Journal of Criminal Justice , 32, 443-454.


Steganography refers to the concealment of a secret message within an ordinary message. At the destination, the information is retrieved using a similar method. In essence, steganography is analogous to advanced cryptography since it an encrypted message is hidden in a way that it raises no suspicion. Ideally, any entity scanning such concealed data will definitely fail to point out if it contains encrypted data. In other words, information is passed to the intended entity without raising suspicion or suggesting its existence. This versatile and effective method of hiding data has gained popularity after the 9/11 terrorist attacks as a process that could be used by subversives, terrorist and others to transmit data or information in ways that are extremely difficult to detect.
Stenography is also defined as the art of hiding messages. It is more advanced than cryptography because it not only provides privacy, but also provides secrecy. Privacy is a feature presented by credit cards in online transactions. When credit cards are used online, their owners conceal the number from the public. In this end, cryptography finds use, and the card transmits encrypted data that can only be decrypted by the web application handling the transaction. In spite of the fact that, the secret code can complex, hackers can establish that the information was sent. In simple terms, under secrecy, the send protects the sent information by eliminating the suspicion. In fact, the idea is that no one should know that the information is sent. One of the outstanding features of stenography is that a secret message is hidden in the media which is sent. The redundant information serves as a distraction and could take any format.
In the present-day digital steganography, standard techniques are used to encrypt data at the initial stages, and then integrate into redundant data using a special algorithm. The redundant data can be an image or text file usually provided but not necessary. In other words, the encrypted information in steganography does not attract attention.
Stenography can be used for legal or illegal purposes depending on the user and the reasons behind the application. Firstly, the message, usually plaintext, is encrypted using traditional methods to produce a ciphertext. Then, a redundant covertext is altered in some way to carry the ciphertext. This results in a steganogram. In legitimate processes, the technique can be used to enforce intellectual property like copyrights by using watermarks in images. On the other hand, one of the most general despicable reasons includes hiding and transmitting information for illegal purposes. As a fact, terrorist organization such as Al-Qaeda among others are flagged for using this method to obscure information in redundant images uploaded on websites. In the networking field, the technique can be used to hide messages in Voice-over-IP (VOIP) as well as in the transmission of steganogram within Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN).
Preventing steganography techniques or methods used to store and transmit illegal information is problematic because the information can be hidden in plain sight, thus culprits can easily get away with it. In fact, if it is done correctly, data or information can be concealed in any document, image or other pieces of information and never be suspected. Despite the fact that we cannot certainly confirm the extent of application of this process in criminal circles or illegal activities, it is probably acceptable to point out that it is in utilization by terrorists, criminals and other evil folks for numerous kinds of mischief. For entities on the good side, they can use security policies and code of honor to prevent the misuse of the technology.
In the Information and Technology realm, every measure has a countermeasure; thus steganography is not exceptional. In this context, the countermeasure is referred to as steganalysis. Steganalysis in a technique and process of detecting suspect piece of data, determine whether the data is obscured within the piece of data, and recover the hidden data. Superficially, Steganalysis sounds like cryptanalysis. However, the processes are not the same. In cryptanalysis, it is obvious that data is encrypted. We only need to have a look at the piece of data to establish whether it is encrypted or not. In contrast, the presence of hidden data is only suspected, and not confirmed by observation.
There are a number of tools that can be used to perform stenography. These tools are both online and downloadable. In the same context, there are several steganography tools used to carry out detection of data that has been hidden using this process. Some of the widespread tools used on some common types of media include Hiding Glyph, Vecna, F5, TrueCrypt, Steganos Privacy Suite and the Further obfuscation. Some of the free online tools include:
1. OpenPuff 4.00
2. Invisible Secrets
3. PGPn123
Steganography is an ancient but incredibly effective and versatile method for hiding or obscuring information that is usually in plain sight. In spite of the fact that there are a number of methods for detecting obscured data, they cannot be relied upon entirely because none of them is 100 percent effective. Therefore, any efforts to detect and stop it must integrate vigilance and technology to constrain the effectiveness of the process.

The First Wife

The First Wife
Modern lifestyles have brought into the society many ills and practices that are beyond human intervention. The marriage unions as instituted and followed by the traditions have been disillusioned with new practices replacing the original beliefs. Just as Sneed (2012) states in her story ‘the First Wife,’ the famous are the same with the infamous but the two are not the same species. The writer in her own view writes about the way through which she through the character, Emma views the marriage traditions as per the modern world. The modern world has brought in new dimensions, in the marriage relations, and; as a result, divorce has increased especially among celebrities (Chaudhary, Anandalakshmy, & Valsiner, 2013). The story based on Emma, married to film star brings to attention the changes that are have had effects in the marriage unions with the unifying factor being wealth. The fantasy and fame have an effect on the marriage unions and the traditions that govern them (Harrington, 2011). However, this paper discusses marriage unions as per the current generation and the challenges that are related with the rich and famous with relation to Christine Sneed’s story ‘the First Wife.’
Sneed talks about marriage in the current generation from a view of the famous and rich people and relates it to the marriage unions of the standard couples. In her story, she addresses the lifestyle that many of the other girls do not understand but fantasize of how successful or good it may be. In a reflection of how Emma and Anders met, in different circumstance, each had a goal and dreams that he or she wanted to achieve. Anders already a rising famous actor and Emma still a student is dreaming about being a screenplay writer in the future. However, her meeting with Anders was a fantasy that she brags about as she compares herself with the people in the restaurant where they met. Describing their encounter Sneed centers on the instances when Anders encountered Emma, touching her hands. Many who had not known what it feels like to be in such a union envied the marriage. Emma’s expression of her view of Anders reflects the views of the other girls or even better of what they viewed the famous. Emma tries to imagine what the girls who were packing the flowers Anders sent her from time to time felt imagining if it were them receiving the flowers from the famous actor they had not met. Emma describes her previous relationships as unsatisfying to her and the man she was in a relationship with her vaguely describes them as compared to her description of Anders. The fantasy world as Sneed puts it plain to the modern world has its flaws that many have not realized. As teens grow, they believe what it feels like to be the wife of a famous actor but the reality proves otherwise (Cashmore, 2006). Nevertheless, Sneed foreshadows from the beginning the dissolution of the marriage.
The marriage relationships as per the description in the story ‘First Wife’ brings to the attention of readers a different side of the marriage unions that people have had less experience or knowledge. While many are fantasizing about how successful, the realities of the unions are unknown to many. The marriage of Emma and Anders serves as an example of the realities and the short-lived happiness of the celebrity and fame that the fantasy life brings. The union is what Emma and the modern teen’s dream of having but the ends are not what anybody dreamt to achieve from the union. While Anders was away in his trips to shoot, is when she meets with another woman whom she decides to be with and divorce Emma. Emma considers her predicament not new in her situation and thinks of other examples that she can recall. Describing Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward marriage, Emma compares to her marriage and still reflects on the idea that Paul Newman had to leave his first wife to have a relationship with Joanne. Therefore, Sneed exemplifies some of the broken relationships and relates it to the ordeal that Emma is to undergo as the wife of Anders, their untimely divorce, and the after events that come after their marriage is dissolved.
Written portraying the current life, the story ‘first wife’ reflects on the changes that inventions, new ways of life, and cultures have had an influence into culture. At the expense of making the best out of the relationships, marriage is a union with the married considering the benefits that they are to gain from the union before anything else. The fame and wealth that Anders had been a pull factor to Emma. Emma enjoyed the benefits that she was entitled to as a wife to a famous actor. Their first meeting after she had written her screenplay that he had sent to him at a restaurant, she was already fantasizing about the benefits that could come out of their bonding. According to Harrington (2011), the modern lifestyle depends much on fantasies that are hard to exist except in the formulation of an individual’s mind. The realities, however, of the situation leads to the dissolution of marriages with the notion if getting satisfaction outside the marriage unions. The film industry has had a major role in the spread of non-realizable dreams people see in films and movies. However, in a practical sense, these are just but ideas that a director or writer has put to play to describe his or her theme. The effect of the film and fantasy life has had a profound effect on the relationship roles and the marriage unions. Polygamy, divorce, and same-gender relationships all traced back to the different themes that have been adapted from the film and movie industries. Started as themes of portraying a message, they have become part of the everyday lifestyles.
The film industry portrays these aspects in a different way that creates an urge among its viewers on what the experience will resemble in the real sense. The influential characters as seen in the films and movies have played a part in the existence of these traits in the diverse cultures. Harrington (2011) asserts that, media and technology have led to the creation of a global culture that is joined by a number of different factors. The diversified traditions are altered in ways unimaginable and the dominant culture among the various cultures dictates the common practices. The inferior cultures are forced to adapt to the new practices that are new to them; as a result, the standard traditions they have been raised in are replaced. Therefore, the young generations as they grow with the influence of the film industries forget their responsibilities as per the cultures. Emma in the story ‘First Wife’ describes her adolescent years as a reflection of the modern teens. It is apparent that, at the tender age of thirteen, she is fantasizing about getting married to the older boys that she is acquainted with or the men that portrayed in the magazines (Edwards, 2013). The predicament is shared among the many teens with each is having their own different opinions or dreams that they so desire to achieve out of their lives as they develop into adulthood.
However, the experience that comes along the development stages shapes the future and the adulthood stages of every person. In her marriage, Emma faces a dilemma of when her husband is going to cheat on her or if he has already done so. The marriage union that existed between the two was pretence with each is expecting something in return from the other. At the time when Emma realizes that Anders wants to divorce her, she hesitates as every other woman would do but later on, she is desperate to how much she will be entitled to receive as the wife. She even goes on to mention the amount of money to under in her custody, the investments, and the villas that she wants to belong to her after they have divorced.
On the other hand, the story ‘the First Wife’ tries to bring to reality the issues that are prevalent in the marriage unions of the rich and famous. The rich and famous just like any other couples face the same challenges in marriages. Just as normal couples are unfaithful to one another, the same applies to the people who are rich and famous. At the onset of the relationship, everything appears to the couples as they have always dreamt about marriage but the reality comes later. As per the ‘First Wife,’ Sneed brings to reality the flaws that any marriage in the modern world faces. Economic constraints and challenges posed as the first challenge towards the dissolution of marriages. Divorce agreements are dependent on what benefit (economic) are the partners going to get when their divorce (Dnes & Rowthorn, 2002). Economic trends (successes) are the reason for the marriages that exist between the rich, economic trends have affected the natural marriage organizations. As per Clarke-Stewart and Brentano (2007) research studies, the conclusion is that the rich look for a spouse that they can love again and not that one person that they have already met and loved. When the intimacy is lost between them, they are likely to look for the same experience anew. They, therefore, will divorce and remarry for the reason of getting satisfaction from the relationships that they have.
Sneed also emphasizes on the realities that become apparent in the marriage organizations. The relationship between Emma and Anders was dependent on the fame and interest that both of them were in search of and not the primary purpose of spending life together. Soon after their union, the realities of the duties and responsibilities they both had in relation to their professions and social obligations dawned on them. Anders spent most of the time outside the house shooting in different parts and gave him a limited time to spend at home. To Anders his career life was taking him places and while Emma remained in the house most of the time. The only communication channel that they had was through the telephone. Weiss & Schneider (2014)assert that, technological advancements have replaced the intimate moments supposed to be shared among couples. Their indifference in the lifestyles portrays their incompatibility as wife and husband a context that has been eroded. Marriage is a union of compatible partners all who takes pleasure at the interest of the other without being displeased. However, the fantasy that the present generation has cultured into its lifestyle has eroded the necessity of such for the sake of economic and selfless gains.
Age difference is another aspect that Sneed addresses while expressing the marriage relationship of Emma and Anders. Emma is three and a half years younger than Anders is. According to OECD (2005) statistics, couples with less or zero age difference have a better chance of living longer together as husband and wife as compared to couples who have a large age difference between them. The age difference factor in the marriage traditions meant a lot to the community and the couples who were getting into marriage relations. However, the current generation considers not this important context. Consequently, wrangles and misunderstandings arise among the couples, a contributing factor to the increased number of divorce.
Additionally, it is evident on the unmet expectations that Anders discovered when he settled with Emma. In his work, Anders expected to enjoy every moment with Emma. During their first encounter, she asked Emma if she did act to express his desire to spend more time with her both outside the working environment and in the working environment. Therefore, when Anders realized that what he intended to meet from Emma, he decides to find another woman who might satisfy the expectations that he had. Both Anders and Emma had different visions of what they wanted to achieve in their lives. While Anders is building on his fame in the film industry, Emma who wanted to become a film writer loses her interest and directs her attention to other events in her life. These different success visions make them incompatible to remain as couples, in turn, they get divorced.
The evolution of technology and other advancements in the modern world have outstretched effects that have disrupted many cultural beliefs in a way unimaginable. Many cultural beliefs with substitutes of the fantasies adapted from the film industries and the movie artists. One such belief is marriage. Divorce is in the rise, in many parts of the world with the reasons still debatable. Tracing back to the early life situations, there are considerable differences that are evident tracing back to the influential roles of media. From her own perspective, Sneed addresses the different issues that relate to the increased number of divorce cases and relates them to the social ways of life. Irrespective of the social class, Sneed tries to give a perspective and experience from both sides. The differences and similarities relate to the contemporary world and they serve as a lesson to readers of her story. To an extent, Sneed related the incidence of divorce by comparing with other celebrities and bringing to play Otik a common and an infamous character.

Cashmore, E. (2006). Celebrity Culture. New York: Routledge Publishers.
Chaudhary, N., Anandalakshmy, S., & Valsiner, J. (2013). Cultural Realities of Being: Abstract Ideas Within Everyday Lives. New York: Routledge Publishers.
Clarke-Stewart, A., & Brentano, ‎. (2007). Divorce: Causes and Consequences. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Inc.
Dnes, A. W., & Rowthorn, B. (2002). The Law and Economics of Marriage and Divorce. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Edwards, L. H. (2013). The Triumph of Reality TV: The Revolution in American Television. Santa Barbra, California: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated.
Harrington, J. L. (2011). Technology and Society. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
OECD. (2005). Society at a Glance 2005 OECD Social Indicators: OECD Social Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishers.
Sneed, C. (2012). The First Wife. In L. Furman, The PEN O. Henry Prize Stories 2012 (pp. 1050-1343). New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Weiss, R., & Schneider, J. (2014). Closer Together, Further Apart: The Effect of Technology and the Internet on Parenting, Work, and Relationships. Carefree, Arizona: Gentle Path Press.

Annotated Bibliography
Cashmore, E. (2006). Celebrity Culture. New York: Routledge Publishers.
Cashmore describes the culture that is associated with celebrities. The book, a case study of the lives of celebrities, presents a closer look at the different lifestyles that they live and the things that they take interest. A book published in 2006 provides current information regarding celebrities and their lifestyles. In relation to the research essay, Ellis presents the conception of artists regarding marriage’s relations and their meaning to celebrities.
Chaudhary, N., Anandalakshmy, S., & Valsiner, J. (2013). Cultural Realities of Being: Abstract Ideas Within Everyday Lives. New York: Routledge Publishers.
The diverse cultures hold different values for marriage relationships. Chaudhary, N., Anandalakshmy, S., and Valsiner, J. present a number of religious beliefs related to marriage relations and thee values that they hold to the society. However, about the evolutions that have been instigated by social and cultural changes these values are lost. A publication of 2013, the data and information regarding the current trends are credible to justify the information presented in the research material.
Clarke-Stewart, A., & Brentano., (2007). Divorce: Causes and Consequences. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Inc.
Clarke-Stewart and Brentano provide a number of causes and consequences that divorce has on the family units and the societal groupings. Their research work and explanations based on psychological perspectives present a new dimension to the concept of divorce. Additionally, the book addresses the effects of divorce to the normal family units with the current generation and challenges. A book published in 2007, gives a credible resource of information that can be used as a reference for developing a research study.
Dnes, A. W., & Rowthorn, B. (2002). The Law and Economics of Marriage and Divorce. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Marriage and divorce according to Dnes and Rowthorn have their ups and downs. However, in the book, they focus on economic issues that are related to marriage and divorce. They present a conclusive research on what the legal regulations on economic factors that might affect marriages and the consequences that it presents in the case of divorce. A book published in 2002, presents a contemporary legal and cultural regulations regarding marriage and the economic considerations.
Edwards, L. H. (2013). The Triumph of Reality TV: The Revolution in American Television. Santa Barbra, California: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated.
The world is becoming a single cultural globe with many cultures mixed together to form a multi-culture. However, according to Edwards, there are imbalances in the dominance of the cultures in this multi-culture pool. The most dominant cultures thrive at the demise of the less dominant. The American television systems have had a profound effect on the cultures of different parts of the world. Published in 2013, Edwards presents the current issues and effects of the television and media on the diverse cultural practices.
Harrington, J. L. (2011). Technology and Society. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Harrington presents a unique perspective on the effect of technology to the cultural practices. Though the effect is not realizable, the long term effects are the ones that Harrington focuses his book. Many cultural practices have been replaced, but the modern methods that technology eases the effort to accomplish in a way unimaginable in the past. The research materials that Harrington presents in his book are credible to be uses for reference since they are a current publication of 2011.
OECD. (2005). Society at a Glance 2005 OECD Social Indicators: OECD Social Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishers.
OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) conducts research regarding the economic and developments of different aspects in the contemporary society. Their research on the divorce rates in the Western countries presents a credible information that is integrated into determining the effects and reasons that are leading to divorce. Their publication of 2005 served as a credible source in the compilation of this paper with latest statistics carried relating to divorce rates.
Sneed, C. (2012). The First Wife. In L. Furman, The PEN O. Henry Prize Stories 2012 (pp. 1050-1343). New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Sneed the author of the story, ‘the First Wife,’ presents a number of issues relating to the issues of divorce and the celebrity lifestyles. In her story, Emma married to a famous actor Anders, faces the challenges that most women married to celebrities have to undergo. Written in 2012, Sneed addresses the modern society and the changes that have been introduced into the society ways through the evolution of culture and technology. Despite the fact that she addressed other aspects in the book, she clearly depicts the societal differences regarding the rich and famous and the ordinary society members.
Weiss, R., & Schneider, J. (2014). Closer Together, Further Apart: The Effect of Technology and the Internet on Parenting, Work, and Relationships. Carefree, Arizona: Gentle Path Press.
Weiss and Schneider discuss the effects of technological improvements on the methods of parenting, work, and social relationships in the modern society. In the place of face to face conversations, technological devices have replaced the essence of the physical meeting with computers, mobile phones or tablets taking their places. Every year, there is a new improvement into the technological world each having its own unique significance and role to play. Weiss and Schneider’s book published in 2014, addresses the very current changes in the parenting, work and relationships and technology.

Irvine Shooting

Irvine Shooting

The police are investigating a murder case that was reported at the home of residents of Birch Street in Irvine. Thought the verdict of the murder or the facts that led to the death is not determined the police have in custody the wife of the deceased who they believe is responsible for the murder. The reporter of the murder was the wife of the victim. According to the police reports, the woman confessed to shooting her husband as part of defense from her husband. According to the woman’s confession, it is alleged that her husband was abusive and she claims further that she had been abused at least three times in the past six months though the police have no records of such cases. Further, the woman claims that she never reported these cases of violations, as she believed that counseling services would help them solve the issues in their relationship. However, even the counseling services that the wife of the victim claims was to be the solutions to their marital problems were never attended even once.
On the night of the murder, the wife of the victim reports having gone out with some of her friends to have drinks without her husband’s knowledge. When she returned to the house that night, the wife of the victim reports that, her husband was agitated with her conduct and according to the woman; she believed that the argument might escalate to physical actions. Therefore, she locked herself in the bathroom where she had hid a .38 caliber handgun. When she threatened her husband that if he beat her she would shoot at him, her husband made a move towards her. That is when she claims to have shot him severally in their kitchen.
However, what is not clear about the murder is the change of accounts that the woman gave the police. Before the handgun was found in the house, the woman claimed that the death of her husband might be because of the illegal dealings that had got him many enemies. Under the investigative officer’s determination of the incident, the woman was arrested and taken to custody without incident. The couple’s children have been taken to the Children’s Protective Services before they are sent to their relatives.
The woman obviously had some part in the murder of her husband or did commit the murder herself. The police report of the status of the house indicates that there is no sign of forceful entry, therefore, the murderer either had was let in or it was the wife of the victim who had the key to the house. The fact that she changes her story with the recovery of the handgun in her house after a search of the house gives her away. Additionally, if another person committed the killing, the murder weapon might not have been discovered within the premises. The first account that she gave about the enemies that her husband had created with the people he dealt with might have been the cause of the death. Considering, that, the woman describes the relationship of her husband with his friends as unethical shows how disappointed she was with the errands that her husband was involved. Even though she does not have evidences of the violations that her husband committed to making their relationship not stable or the counseling sessions they were to attend to, her account to justify her act as defense against her husband does not hold ground. Therefore, to the extent she is guilty of the murder.

Analysis of Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 and Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624

Analysis of Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 and Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624
Different artists used various styles to communicate and project their ideas, and what they felt and thought. The artists used various genres such as landscapers, portraits and scenes to portray or communicate on various things within their environment. Therefore, art provides a rich history of what was experienced. The various pieces of artwork incorporated different elements of art such as color and lighting among others to project the message. This paper compares the two pieces of art, which include Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 and Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624. Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 painting is simple in composition and restrained in color compared to Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624 which is a bit complex and warm.
These two portraits have similarities as well as differences. The Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 is a portrait of Saint Francis and it is affiliated to religion. It represents the Saint who Christians respected for his religious commitment. The portrait stands at an open place. The painting is simple and makes the saint look sacred through the posture. On the other hand, Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624 is a portrait of Philip IV the king of Spain. The portrait is elegant and stands majestically. The portrait has flower vase on a stool. The king is painted wearing gold chain and a black cloth that reaches the knees. The king also wears the emblem of the order of the Golden Fleece and holds a paper in his hand.
When it comes to composition and point of view, the Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 is standing in isolation. The portrait has no objects in the background. It stands elegantly alone. The painting is not clustered, as it is solid. The portrait is symmetrical. The painting therefore is balanced and the scene is viewed from below. On the other hand, the portrait on Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624 is also symmetrical. The portrait is at close range. The background has a black background with a vase standing on the stool. This section is however very small and is cut. The portrait is viewed from below, meaning that an individual is able to see the portrait from the front. The portraits therefore have these similarities in terms of their composition and point of view.
Color is also a very important factor in painting. Different colors mean different aspects, and choosing the right colors is very important in any piece of art. In the Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran, 1640-45 colors are restrained in the sense that there is limited coloring. The gown worn by the Saint France is chocolate and rhymes with the face. The background is painted brown and helps to enhance the element to space. There is a considerable distance between the background and the locations that the Saint is standing .This is enhanced through the paintings and the variations of the colors used. Black is also used in this painting to indicate some level of contrast. The piece is painted in black and as well, other parts in the backgrounds are blackish to indicate a sense of time. The painting therefore helps to enhance understanding of the time the portrait was drawn. The ground that the saint is standing is painted in brown. This combination of colors therefore helped to attenuate and heighten the calmness and the religious mood of the portrait. They make the portrait calm, which or resonates with the religion. Similarly, on the other hand, the portrait of Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624 color is extensively use. Various colors are used to project the king. Some of the colors used include black, grey and brown. The outstanding color is black. This is the color that portrays the gown that the king is wearing. This color is also accompanied with other colors such as golden brown that shows the golden chain won by the king. The face and the hands are painted white hence indicating the face of the king. The background and the surface or floor that the portrait stands is painted in light grey. There are also some floor vases in the backgrounds painted in the brown. These combinations of colors help to achieve the sense of unity and mood in the painting.
Lighting is also incorporated in the painting. In the Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45, there is theatrical lighting that helps to give the figure a sense of sacredness and intense. The lighting is used to illuminate or to enhance the image and to show its aspects of religious. The fact that this portrait is of Saint France, lighting is used to signify some sort of hope in trust and remain faithful to the super being. Furthermore, the light is employed to enhance visibility, as the background is clout with some darkness. Therefore, this enhances the level of attractiveness of the painting and as well has some deeper meaning. In the Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624, lighting is also used. By the view of the painting, the lighting signifies that the painting manifests daytime. The painting is clear and visible especially the upper part of the body. The face of the King is visible and can be recognized easily by the audiences because of the lighting. Therefore, these two portrait use light in a slightly different manner. The lighting in Saint Frances portrait is visible and is recognizable compared to the portrait of King Philip. The lighting is also used to serve different purposes, as in the Saint France, it is basically used to enhance the aspects of religious indication hope, while in the king Philip painting, lighting is used to enhance visibility and ensure that the portrait is viewed at a distance.
The brush strokes used to paint Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 portrait was soft and thin. This is exemplified through the fine texture. The garment the saint is wearing looks fine as well as the background, which illustrate the softness of the brush strokes. On the other hand, the Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624 painting used a combination of thick and soft brush strokes as manifested through the painting. The background texture is brought, which illustrates that the brush used was thick compared to the paintings on the floor, and the face and the garment worn by the king. Therefore, through these variations, a painter is able to enhance how he delivers the message.
Through the paintings, it is therefore evident that the painters wanted to pass across certain meaning or impression. The Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 painting is simple and color restrained. It creates a calm and sober mood and feelings. The painters therefore portray the human nature and sacredness of the saint through the portrait. It therefore stimulates a feeling of calmness; the holding together of hands is a sign of humbleness, and the using of light helps to indicate the religious aspect associated with the painting. Therefore, any person looking at these visual aspects will be able to depict the mood and the feelings that the painter captured through it. On the other hand, the Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624 painting appears elegant and reverent. The portrait is majestic and shows or elicits moods and feelings of superiority and power. For the visual elements, one can easily deduce that this is somebody with some power. The portrait is relaxed and shows brevity. Furthermore, the gold chain around the neck of the portrait is an indication of social status.
These two pieces of art resonate and fit the historical context at the time they were painted. Various qualities and characteristics in the painting resonate with other pieces. For instance, the Saint Francis by Francisco de Zurbaran 1640-45 was painted to exemplify the aspect of religion. Religion was embraced at that time and figures such Saint Francis was used as points of reference to why people needed to fear God. Similarly, the Philip IV, King of Spain by Diego Rodriguez 1624, which was painted in 1624, exemplifies the value accorded to kings and the monarchs.
In conclusion, these two paintings have some similarities and differences in the way various visual elements are projected to the audience. They used different aspects to enhance their message delivery. Therefore, the painters managed to exemplify or to pass across their messages to the audience through these paintings.

Organizational Communication Audit

Organizational Communication Audit

As a public entity, Don Bosco Elementary school has an obligation of communicating effectively with the community. Besides that, as an enterprising entity whose mission is to educate the children from the nearby community, and which is financed by the society’s tax money, its life line depends on the support of the community. Effective communication is essential to developing and maintaining that communal support.
In this end, communication contributes to the goal of this public institution, which is community engagement. To promote this goal, it is imperative for the school’s communication strategy to be rich, flexible and diverse. In addition, communication should help all the stakeholders involved to participate in the school’s processes, activities and decision making to a level that interests and circumstances allow. This communication audit marks an effort by the school’s board to improve the existing communication channels or interface with the community. It entails a review and analysis of the school’s existing communications and gives recommendations on how to improve them. The communication audit is a move toward helping the school presenting its story better to the whole community.
Business communication is the backbone of organizational operations in the internal and the external environment of the organization. As the business landscape change, sooner or later, entities will need to refine or rebuild their communication frameworks (Downs and Adrian p.3). For example, businesses will have to migrate some of their operations online through extranets or public websites. In addition, library portals of an organization can be included in an organization public website or intranet. In other words, organizations must enhance its interface with clients. In essence, communication audit is a regular or systematic evaluation of the existing and future needs of an organization’s communication structure with the focus on the client (Coffman p.1; Downs and Adrian p.6; Haargie and Tourish p.28).
As a request of the school, the school board commissioned an audit to establish the strengths and weaknesses with key stakeholders including staff, parents and the community. In April, 2014, the existing communication documents and the school website were reviewed. The results and recommendations of the audit are presented in this communications audit report. The school board and administration will implement the recommendations in its short term and long term communications plans for the next three quarters of the year. This will be taken into practice by the help of the school’s Communication and Stakeholders Relations committee under the direction of the school’s board.
Communication goals and objective
In any entity, the key goal of communication is to help the entity serve and reach all its stakeholders (Coffman p.1; Downs and Adrian p.2). In this context, the school is not exceptional. Effective communication provides timely and resourceful information that stakeholders care about. In addition, communication also reminds the community of the services and benefits offered by the school. Moreover, it bridges the gap between the community and the internal structures of the school.
In the review and analysis of the existing communications, the following objectives were identified:
1. Foster understanding of the school’s activities. This entails providing facts, background, explanation and examples irrespective of the school’s facilities, finances, curriculum and any related activities.
2. Provide information about the activities and possible issues. School’s communication should assist stakeholders to understand the activities of the school and provide them with up-to-date news.
3. Encourage involvement with the school based on self-interest. In this perspective, communication should help stakeholders, particularly the community to visualize the taxes they remit against the expenditure as well as the appropriate and projected benefits.
4. Promote cultural change in line with district goals and objectives. Stakeholders should use the school’s communication channels regularly and participate in the schools activities.
Principles of effective communication
Effective communication should be strategic. That is to say, communication strategy should be in alignment with the school’s goals, objectives, mission and vision. Secondly, the provided information should be accurate. The school should ensure that all the information transmitted internally should complete and fault proof. In addition, communication should be transparent or open. The school should avail clear information to the community and make it accessible to all authorized audiences. In addition, the schools should acknowledge mistakes or errors when they arise and avail consistent information about the alterations made. Moreover, written communications should be free from misspelling, grammatically correct and free from typographical errors. Moreover, communications should be timely to allow the audiences to respond appropriately. This includes providing necessary feedback. Most importantly, communication should be two-way. The interfaces used should enable and encourage opinions and comments. This feedback can be effectively transformed to intelligent data for formulating future communication strategies.
Audit Analysis
There are numerous indicators signaling that the school is doing a commendable job in terms of communicating to the stakeholders. A good number of the respondents to direct interview with the schools staff and some community residents indicated that the school communicates well in various segments. In the same context, the feedback received from the respondents suggests that the school has to work on its digital media, particularly the school’s public website. In fact, most of the respondents want the school’s public website to be the main communication channel. This is attributed the fact that majority of them are conversant with digital technologies, particular communication using emails. In addition, they pointed out that website should be responsive. That is, it should be easy to navigate using handheld devices such as tablets and mobile phones with accessibility to the internet.
Additionally, social media networking provides deeper and rich communication content. Despite the numerous advantages pointed to these technologies, the respondents were also concerned about the security of the back end systems, particularly the schools fiancé system. The school can improve other segments of its communications. For example, the school can plan and execute its print communications effectively. In addition, the often overlooked communications segments such as the interaction between the parents or guardians, other community members and the school staff can be refined through planning and training programs. Given that a substantial amount of the school’s budget allocation is directed to communication department, a close scrutiny will be valuable. As a public institution, the relevant departments and employees should monitor their expenses carefully; a financial audit for this area is not exceptional therefore the school must plan and carry a cost benefit analysis to ensure that its investments in communication are beneficial to all the stakeholders.
By analyzing the internal environment of the institution, the school has a lot to transmit between its internal environment and the external environment of the school. The internal environment entails students and the staff, whereas the external environment entails the community and other stakeholders such as supplier, partners and the government. In most respects, the respondents rated the school’s communication favorably. The communication from teachers was rated positively by parents and guardians.
Similar to small community based schools, this institution’s communication responsibilities are left with the principal and other school administrators who already limited in terms of resources and time. In spite of the fact that the school’s website is attractive and detailed, it is somehow difficult to navigate. In addition, it is not responsive that challenging to access over mobile devices. In addition, the school faces linguistic challenges when communication with non-English speaking community members and students under social and economic stress.
Effective planning can improve communication under budget and time constraints. The negative perception that exist among some staff members and between some staff members and guardians can be reversed if communication is made as first priority with transparent practices for gathering data and responding to feedbacks. Outreach programs to non-English speaking community members also benefits those families and their children socially and academically.
The school must work diligently to be sustained by community support for its budgets. Some parents do not understand the challenges the school faces as well as the role they can play in helping administrators and principals to address the challenges. If the school does not find ways to address the undercurrents of dissatisfaction that were presented in the interviews, they could grow worse in the near future.
The following recommendations are not intended to be doctrinaire, but rather, serve as a roadmap for improving organizational communication, building community and staff support, and establishing a comprehensive two-way communication interface. The administration and the board are advised to carefully consider and prioritize recommendations based on urgency. That is to say, they should implement those that need immediate attention and later integrate the other recommendations in the organization’s long terms plans. For improvement, the strategies below are recommended:
Create a strategic Communication Plan
Putting the recommendations below in place can improve the schools communications significantly. However, they must be incorporated in a well-designed strategic communication plan (Haargie and Tourish p.27). To create such a plan, the school must outline its goals and describe how the goals will be achieved. In addition, the school establishes metrics to visualize the progresses, and evaluate as well as amend its practices in reference to the progress and open communication discussed below. Moreover, the plan requires the school leadership to be more purposeful and deliberative about their goals and the processes they will undertake. One of the prerequisites for the success of the plan is that presented communication goals must be in line with school’s overall goals and objectives. In addition, the communication goals must be feasible and realistic. Lastly, job descriptions and lines of responsibility must be clear. In such a small school where the administrative structure is constrained and rarely supports any communication position, the communication plan may collapse. A strategic plan can help the school to overcome the communication burdens identified by the administration and are also evident in the communication audit report. Further, it can deepen and broaden the link between the school and its stakeholders.
Open up the Communication Process
Focus groups, open-ended comments and direct responses uncovered some sentiment that the school’s decision making process is not transparent. Given that it cannot be concluded that was a majority opinion, it should not be ignored. By making communication strategic and execution it effectively can address these issues. However, it is recommended the school should institutionalize avenues for stakeholders to be heard and included in the decision making process where necessary. For example, the school can institute an advisory committee that constitutes community members and staff members. This will certainly create a transparent structure for stakeholders to raise important issues. In addition, virtual communication committees can be introduced. This entails volunteers from all sides of the stakeholders’ realm
Incorporate Key Strategic Principles into all Channels of Communication
The school has several modes and tools of communication at its disposal. This includes print, analog and digital media. In addition, the school’s communication is distributed subject to the fact that there are different types of audiences. Moreover, there is no specific person responsible for communication. Based on this, the school must integrate a number of core strategic principles into the daily operation of the school. Consequently, they will help the school to communicate both consistently and effectively. Firstly, messages should be run through audience-message-channel analysis to shape the communication that follow. In addition, communication must be understandable, precise and purposeful because time is precious in the school. In this context, the school should consider revising its quarterly community newsletter in digital form. In addition, a summary of board meetings can be created and posted online. These measures will combat perceptions that were presented by some parents and staff that decision making is opaque.
Improve the execution of communication
The review and analysis pointed out some grey areas for improvement in both print and digital media. Below are some of the issues that the school can address within the shortest time possible: simplify messages; date all memos and online post; proof read and use spell check before posting, printing and emailing; use consistent fonts; optimize the website for various browsers, platform and handheld devices; provide organizational structure on the website and use the translation function.
From the discussion above, it is quite evident that a communication audit is essential for the success of communication strategies and efforts in any organization. The review, analysis, findings and recommendations presented in the communication audit report can be used to formulate better and flexible communication strategies. Moreover, the report can be used to reinforce the link between the institution and its stakeholders. Furthermore, communication audit can help the institution to engender the stakeholders trust and support needed by the school. It is diligent work that comes with practical benefits.

Works Cited
Coffman, Julia. “Strategic Communications Audits.” October 2004. Communications Consortium Media Center (CCMC). 18 April 2014 .
Downs, Cal W and Allyson D Adrian. Assessing Organizational Communication : Strategic Communication Audits. New York : Guilford Press, 2004.
Haargie, Owen and Dennis Tourish. Auditing Organisational Communication: A handbook of Research, Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Color Code

Color Code
An interactive search engine for identifying nouns is put together into a more interactive manner with the use of colors as the primary basis for doing a search. Thirty three thousand (33,000) words all nouns with assigned a color makes up the Color Code (Wattenberg 1). Color code is referred to as a map of English nouns arranged in with a form that corresponds to a rectangle. Based on the internet search for a noun, each rectangle has a distinctive form assigned. The rectangles are of different shapes owing to the intensity of the color representing a noun. The bright, intense colors are large compared to the light colors that are used to correspond to a noun in the color map. The unique arrangement allows similar words to come out close to one another to ease the search for a noun. In the identifying with the nouns, the Color Code provides an opportunity of identifying the nouns with the movement of the mouse around the image.
On the color button, arranged according to the hue and brightness, when a user clicks on the option labeled ‘color,’ a corresponding word noun will be shown. Alternatively, in the ‘all starting with textbox,’ the user can identify the color of a noun by only typing the noun. In the design and assigning of the color to the different nouns, an image search was performed which resulted in 50 different images for each color. The criteria used in the assignment of colors were with respect to the number of images that were retrieved from the search. If the image results were less than 50, the word would be discarded with grounds that it is not clear. The words used in creating the noun map are a collection retrieved from the WordNet. The words were sampled creating a tree-structured categorization.
The design of Color Code is constitutes two elements these being the words in the English language and the color schemes. The Color Code creates a build-up of connections between the different images and their color schemes as related to the word. Combining with artistic features, Martin Wattenberg’s invention seeks to enhance the understanding and identification of word no matter how frequent the word might appear. Color Code, therefore, implies to the users the interrelation between art and color as universal languages. Consequently, the English language can be a means of passing information to individuals even in diverse areas in a method through which they can understand. The design and use of art and color in the Color Code system is interactive and easy to understand.
The Color Code creates an interactive approach to the users by giving the users an option to conduct their own search. Being in control of the actions and the search, initiates an interest in the user to identify ways of making the best out of the art design. Additionally, it creates a platform for interaction with the different words in the English language. Learning of new words, identifying the spellings of the words and linking them to the color scheme creates a reference system that helps any user in further understanding of the English language.
Color Code is a successful combination to form a fascinating, and an artistic invention that integrates the English language in a unique approach. The English language can be examined and categorized with respect to color schemes. Integrating the different web search results to come up with 33,000 words proves the complexity of the design and the use in the search and relation to nouns affirm the interconnectivity of universal materials.

Work Cited
Wattenberg, Martin. “Color Code.” 18 April 2014 . Web

Sanction Mechanisms

Sanction Mechanisms
Sanction is one of the ways that Supreme Court use to ensure that there is law and order among the courts. Prosecutors, lawyers and clients are required to adhere to ethical standards at all time as they seek justice. This paper delineates on the sanctions the U.S supreme courts can take against prosecutors for unethical conducts. It further describes the types of prosecution misconduct and the concept of backdoor evidence.
The authorities are provided with various types of disciplinary actions to prosecutors who fail to adhere to codes of ethics. The two sanctions that are provided include disbarment and reprimands. Disbarring strips the prosecutor the rights to practice law in the state in question. This is a good disciplinary action and can help instill discipline in other prosecutors who go against ethical standards. In some occasions, the disbarred prosecutors may be given a suspension or seek reinstatement to the bar after a certain period. However, in such occasions, the prosecutor is required to demonstrate that such unethical behaviors will not be repeated. In reprimands, the disciplinary authority censors the attorney privately. The bar informs the affected prosecutors about the bar verdict and warning provided against a repeat of similar behavior. The private reprimand remains in the attorney’s file and would be factored in future incase the prosecutor repeats the mistake.
The two types of prosecutorial misconduct that I believe can adversely affect an innocent defendant case include prosecuting without required evidence, and concealing or covering up of exculpatory evidence. It is unethical for a prosecutor to fail to provide required evidence in a case to try any suspect. This is going against the law and unethical as well. Likewise, covering up on some of the facts in a case with the aim of favoring one side is also unethical behavior. A good example of such cases include the case of star athlete Brian Banks, who was wrongly convicted of raping without enough evidence that could help the case reach this conclusion. In this case, there was no DNA testing, no forensic evidence was conducted and there was no witness called to testify. In another case, assistant district attorney Mary Kellett was also charged with failing or violating seven ethical requirements, one of them was covering up evidence. These two cases affect the defendant cases because they deny them an opportunity to prove to the court their innocence.
The concept of backdoor evidence is aimed in permitting an expert to form opinion by relying on information not admitted during the trial and as well on evidence that is inadmissible. Therefore, this means that the evidence in such circumstances is only disclosed for limited purpose of helping the jury to evaluate the opinions of the expert in cases where probative value of evidence outweighs its prejudicial effects. Opposing counsels and presiding judges can therefore control this practice by understanding the impossibilities of limiting instructions as well as reduce the level of disclosure. They should therefore provide guidelines and limitations on the tendency to rely on the backdoor evidence. The other way is to ensure that they provide appropriate guidelines before the commencement of the cases to ensure that certain aspects such as overlying on this kind of evidence is limited and restricted. For example, the judges should have a session with the lawyers of the accuser, the accused and experts to discuss on the use and limitations of the backdoor evidence.

Development Autobiography Project

Development Autobiography Project

Growing up has had its challenges and flaws at different stages as years pass by. The different life situations that present themselves are a stepping-stone, a learning process towards achieving personal goals as one grows.
This picture was taken when 5 years a period in personal physical growth was. With the care and support from parents, and siblings, a development stage involved learning processes and ability to identify with the new environments. The picture was taken in the family cottage, which housed three siblings and my parents. During the 1960s, blacks were allowed to move freely in the States and hold positions in the work areas. This was an avenue to improving on getting quality education. However, women were still not allowed to take part in some jobs that were still male dominated. Back in the house, interesting jobs that would interest my attention I was not allowed to partake.

This is a picture taken when 13 years old. It was a time of socio-emotional growth and early adolescence. This was a time that personal dependence and realization were left to be decided personally. The picture was taken in school during the first day of admission. Despite the changes in the governance system, the Black population was still discriminated with most of them living in the suburbs. The discrimination did create a negative attitude towards attending large events where the audience was mostly white.

At 17 years old, more opportunities to develop talents and self-realization presented itself. The photo was taken in the school dormitory. The setbacks of the previous years became the reason to which I had to use in progressing both academically and socially.

At 23 years old, as an employee in a hotel, the opportunity to improve my cognitive skills and interpersonal relations with fellow employees came to test. The photo was taken at the hotel I was employed.

At 25, years old, I had the opportunity to pursue further education in the university. The dependent life is was an avenue to developing my socio-emotional and cognitive attributes as part of a big society. The photo was taken at the University grounds.

At 35 years old, after graduating from the University, I ventured into guidance and counseling and opened a firm. The practice was an opportunity for me to use the skills I had gained from different development stages to help others. However, it was an opportunity to realize the setbacks in my cognitive development and make necessary changes as an adult. The photo was taken in my office.

At 40 years old and having five years experience, the working environment became my learning environment with every new client being a reflection on what is supposed of me as I develop. The working environment presents different challenges that are to shape and motivate better working conditions. Thus, as I offer guidance I reflect upon my personal life. The photo was taken in my new office.

At 42 years old for excelling in my profession, I was awarded the best counselor in the region with an organization. My company served more than 2000 patients and having 50 employees. At this age, culture is but a stepping-stone towards achievement. Manipulating the opportunities it presents is the driving force towards success. The opportunity to work with the public was a development in my cognitive attributes. The photo was taken during the awarding ceremony.

At 43 years old, I retired to spend time with the family members and relatives. However, as a partner in the counseling firm, I was occasionally contacted for legal advice and management issues. Offering advice from a different environment (not the office) gave me an opportunity to integrate the normal life circumstances as people live into the office work. The experience was a boost to my cognitive skills and communication. The photo was taken at my residential house.

At 45 years old, the culture provides support and environment for growth and establishment. The cognitive skills developed over the years are put to practice in interacting with the society. The photo was taken at my residential house.

Development stages present different features within an individual. The different life experiences that one passes through are ways through which he or she realizes the potential that he or she has to becoming a different person. Additionally, the life challenges presented to different ways through which he or she can improve him or herself. If one becomes successful in a job or task that they have an obligation of completing, then it forms an interest within them to solve a similar challenge later in life. Life is a continuous process that every person seeks to identify him or herself with the surrounding environments that they interact. Both the positive and negative environments have a distinctive effect to the development of an individual. However, depending on the manner in which the person will face the challenge presented to him or her will determine their outcomes. The negative environment discourages progress within an individual, however, it is also a way through which the person can see the weaknesses that he or she has and adjust him or herself to suit the situation. Nonetheless, a positive environment acts as a motivation to continued growth and developable features to help in different situations, but also it might create complacency within an individual. Since an individual might be satisfied with what they have already achieved, they might forget the next action required of them to improving their lives. Therefore, all the conditions and challenges of life are meant to play a role in the development stages.