Campaign Finance Reforms





Campaign Finance Reforms

There has been a close link between money and politics in the United States of America from the time elections started. To some, there can be no power without money and no money without power. During the 1700s only male landowners who had exceeded 21 years of age were eligible to vie for any political post. The system was organized this way to ensure that only those who had money and wealth had their say in the political affairs of the states. As a result, elections were often marred with massive irregularities and corruption. Cases of voters being persuaded to vote for or against a candidate by use of money were on at an all time high.

The first case of financial campaign was during the elections of 1828 when the mass media and newspapers were used to generate publicity and to spread propaganda. Twenty years later, history repeated itself when Abraham Lincoln used his own money to fund his political ambitions. This move nearly rendered him bankrupt. Close friends also donated money to ensure that his campaign was well oiled (Robert and Alice).

According to the Woodhock Theological Center, the political funding became a trend where wealthy families could fund political campaigns and return favors once those they had supported ascended into power. Although money is important in helping pass important message to the voters that will help them in making a correct decision during the decision making process, there should be a limitation on the amount of funding. Corporate funding should not be tolerated as it encourages special interest decisions.

Gill and Lipsmeyer urgue that the first laws for regulating elections campaigns were enacted in the year 1867, when the Navy appropriation act was passed. It was aimed at restricting the civil servants from soliciting campaign funds from navy workers. In the year 1872, the level of campaign funding had reached an unprecedented high. Wealthy Democrats contributed $10,000 each in support of their candidates. Ulysses Grant had nearly a quarter of its funding from a single donor. It became clear that the elected had a bigger obligation to those who had oiled their campaign wheels (Gill and Lipsmeyer).

Corporations soon got into the act leading to an outcry by politicians such as Teddy Roosevelt. In 1905, he proposed a law in which corporations were to be restricted from financing election campaigns. This proposition was met with intense resistance from the wealthy and politicians themselves. It became clear that money was an active ingredient during the decision making process. As Gill and Lipsmeyer note, the wealthy through their money could meddle with legislation process for they had played a key role in the elections of the lawmakers. In as much as men of wealth continued to meddle with the American political system, an edict restricting corporates and banks from making direct contributions or endorsement was made. It came to be in the year 1907.

The Tillman bill was well drafted, however, due to poor implementations; there was not much change in countering the impact that money had on politics. In spite of all these, it ushered a new era of modern campaign laws. It is common for political campaigns to set audacious fundraising targets that will surpass those set by the previous cycle. It is mythical thought that having a well-funded campaign than your opponent always comes up with competitive advantage (Robert and Alice). Having greater financial muscles than your opponent does not guarantee a win, however with the nature of politics today, it does increase the probability of winning.

The Bipartisan campaign reform act, commonly known as the McCain-Feingold act, made the contribution field for elections campaign to only focus on a limited class of wealthy individuals. The bill was the first significant overhaul of federal campaign financial laws since the post-Water gate scandal era. Campaign reform laws continue to face resistance in courts and the American government is trying its best to avoid these situations (Robert and Alice).

A proposition was made in which members of the public are to be issued with a $50 dollar voucher that will be donated to a campaign of their choice. The aspirants are also made to declare their wealth to ensure that whatever they amass during the campaign and their tenure is only ascertainable. Campaign reforms should be passed and made tighter for every political party fielding a candidate (Center).

Taking the case of a chemical corporation, if the laws were not tighter, they would go for a candidate who promises to oblige and give in to their demands. This would be at the expense of the safety and desires of the public. This is also due to the fact that chemical corporations have more funds to donate than the GDP of the communities that will be affected by the draconian laws that propagate impunity (Robert and Alice).

In the future, there should be better laws regulating on the amount of money that should be spent on a campaign process. This will ensure that political parties, regardless of their financial masculinity, are made to operate on a common ground. The major challenge in the implementation of this proposition is that not all political parties that spend huge chunks of money violate the laws; some use the money to ensure that they are able to sell their manifestoes to the public (Gill and Lipsmeyer). Restricting the amount of money they spend, might limit their coverage of information. Moreover, a measure to counter political funding can help avert corruption and impunity, which comes with changing hands.

Works Cited

Center, Woodstock Theological. The Ethics of Lobbying: Organized Interests, Political Power, and the Common Good . Georgetown University Press, 2008.

Gill, David and Christine Lipsmeyer. Soft Money and Hard Choices: Why Political Parties Might Legislate Against Soft Money Donations. Public Choice. New York: Prime Time press, 2007.

Robert, Kaiser and Crites Alice. “How lobbying became Washington’s biggest business – Big money creates a new capital city. As lobbying booms, Washington and politics are transformed.” Citizen K Street (The Washington Post). (2007): n.p.

Analysis of Edgar Allan Poe Short stories

Short story is a form of conveying information to the audience. Writers use short stories to share their views and opinions with the audience.  One of the renowned writers of short stories that this study focuses on is Edgar Allan Poe. This discussion delineates on some of the short stories of Poe. The short stories include The angel of the odd, Berenice, The black cat and The facts in the case of M. Valdemar. The themes in the short stories are related, and talk about horror and death.

There are connections in the themes of various short stories by Poe.  In literary work, the motivation of the writers is different and varies from one to another. In these four short stories, the themes relate to each other and this may be an indication of the experiences and the styles of the writer.  Through the stories, Poe manifests themes relating to anguish, death, sufferings and tragedies. The stories have horror episodes that are narrated by different narrators. The author’s decisions or motivation may be as a result of the experiences in his life, as he had to go through a difficult life.  In the story the Angel of the Odd, he uses unnamed narrator who recounts a story of a man that died after sucking a needle down in his throat.  He thinks that this is a foolish story that does not hold any truth (Quinn 12). The angel of the Odd appears and acknowledges to be the cause of the strange.  Because the man does not believe in this creature, he drives the angel away. This marks the beginning of atrocities and anguish in his way.  The tragedy in this story begins as the house catches fire, before insuring it. The man falls down and gets a fracture as other demises comes to his way. Therefore, this is illustration of horrific situation brought out by Poe.

Likewise, going through the second short story ‘Berenice’, it became evident that Poe’s themes were closely related to his first short story. Even though the plot is not the same, the themes advanced are an indication of hollowness and isolation. There are also some episodes that depict horror and anguish. The story is narrated from the first person’s point of view by unreliable narrator who admits to have mental debility (Allen 23). This acknowledgement helps to make the story appear more credible to an extent. The story of Berenice starts with a sad tone in a gloomy mansion as captured by the narrator’s statement: ‘misery is manifold’.  He goes ahead to state that evil comes from goodness and sorrow comes from joy.  When the narrator falls in love with a beautiful woman who suffers from epilepsy, the woman makes him experience prolonged stupor. The woman’s teeth also obsess the narrator (Sova 21). The image of her teeth keeps on recurring in his mind. This triggers the narrator to remove the thirty-two teeth from the woman. This is a very horrible and sad episode.  It is unimaginable, how it feels to remove teeth in someone’s mouth; the pain is just unbearable. Therefore, this illustrates the horror in this story. The burying of the woman while she is alive is also another horrible situation, or rather episode in the story.  Furthermore, the depiction or use of a narrator who suffers from mental illness and obsession is meant to drive the point home.  Poe tries to bring out the problems and the challenges that the society faces. The narrator is suffering from this problem, which is likely to be obsessive-compulsive disorder that makes him to keep on remembering and thinking about the untarnished teeth of the woman.  This drives him to remove them even after the woman has not yet died. Isolation is also manifest in the story as one of the themes.  Egaeus isolates himself from the rest of the family and spends most of his time in the library. Even after he marries, he still isolates himself from his wife Berenice, implying that he does not love her.  Isolation is a problem that may affect someone psychology and is an indication of the challenges that life brings with it.

 In the short story The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar, Poe also explores the genre of horror and death. It is evident that there is no person that is able to escape death. Even as people try all sorts of ways to avoid death, such as freezing their bodies at death, taking extreme diets, exercises, regimes and all sorts of methods, they face death at the end (Cummings 23).  He also depicts horror through the experiments that people do. It is not always the case that these experiments will provide positive results. Some of the experiments and treatments result in deformities, weight loss, and abnormal growth, loss of memory, depression, and even death in some occasions (Poe 34). The experience of a doctor with his patients is also horrible. Using mesmerism technique to treat the patients does not work as the doctor expects it. The patient behaviors are very astonishing. Therefore, this helped the author to bring out the concept of death; that no person is above death regardless of the status or what we do.  When the time comes, even the doctor cannot be able to bring back the life to an individual.

The black cat is yet another short story by Poe that falls in the genre of horror stories.  It takes a mood tone as the narrator narrates the story. The story illustrates the capability of a man to observe his own deterioration and the ability of the mind to comment on its own destruction, even though having to objectively halt or question the deterioration. Although the narrator is fully aware of the mental deterioration, at some point in the story he realizes that the change is occurring within him and then tries to find a solution about the same, but finds himself not able to reverse his falling. It is the pervasiveness of the narrator that led him into committing the offenses that he does. The horrific scenes are clearly manifest in this story as the narrator kills the cat. It is believed that the guilt of being an alcoholic is what directs the narrator to kill the cat.  Furthermore, the guilt about his previous actions leads him to murder his wife who had shown him gallows of the breast of the second cat (Bliss 96).  The book therefore explores the themes of horror as depicted from the murders that occur. The narrator also faces execution because of the crimes that he did. The crime that he committed because of guilt is something that he could have managed to control. This short story therefore resonates with the rest of the stories discussed in this paper.

The dominant themes the author uses are death and horrors scenes.  Life is full of these challenges that people experience.  Even though the short stories were written in different periods, they share the same themes. They also belong to the genre of horror. The stories oscillate on the concept of death and the horror situations. For instance, in the short story of Berenice, the author portrays the horrifying episode of a mentally challenged man causing pain to a woman by plucking her teeth, and then burying the woman alive. Similar episodes are manifest from the rest of the short stories. It is apparent that through these portrayals the author wanted to convey a message to the audience. The message I find in these stories is that life is full of challenges and problems. As human beings, we must go through these situations and we must at some point in our lives die.  I find the stories interesting and at the same time instilling fear because of the concept and the themes that the author uses to  bring out his points of views.


Works Cited

Allen, Hervey . “Introduction”. The Works of Edgar Allan Poe. New York: P. F. Collier &            Son. 1927. Print.

Bliss, Ann. ‘Household horror: domestic masculinity in Poe’s the black cat. (Edgar Allan   Poe)(Critical essay).’ The Explicator, 67.2 (2009): 96. Print.

Poe, Harry Lee. Edgar Allan Poe: An Illustrated Companion to His Tell-Tale Stories. New York: Metro Books. 2008. Print.

Sova, Dawn.  Edgar Allan Poe, A to Z. New York: Checkmark Books, 2001. Print.

Quinn, Arthur. Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins       University Press, 1998. Print.

Cummings. The facts in the case of M. Valdemar. Web. 2006.


Criminal Justice System and Crime Prevention

Crime prevention refers to an attempt to reduce the risk of victimization and crime, and to increase the chances of criminals to be caught. It reduces the opportunities that fits legitimately into a society and reduces the criminal’s desire to commit crime, hence contributes to the improvement of a society’s safety (Andrews & Bonta, 1994). A successful crime prevention effort enhances the opportunity for safety of a community through promoting the perception of safety and the attitude of individuals to feel safe and protected. Criminologists and sociologists have provided a distinction between formal and informal efforts in crime prevention, thus; the criminal justice system falls under the social formal control and has the purpose of defining, punishing, and deterring crime done principally under the rule of law. It is a tertiary prevention measure that takes place after crime has been committed. Criminal justice system uses these approaches to anticipate, recognize, appraise and address crime or other conditions or factors that may lead to crime. In an effort to prevent crime, there are various strategies used by the criminal justice system such as providing education on drugs, rehabilitation programs, character modeling, improving literacy, thinking skills, provides solutions for anger management, communication, as well as, parenting skills.
In the definition of crime prevention, criminal justice system includes programs in the courts and corrections or rehabilitation programs aimed at reducing crime. Thus, for policy purposes, the criminal justice system has various intervention programs through the courts and corrections to be classified as incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, community restraints, structure discipline and challenge and the combination of rehabilitation and restraint.
Incapacitation also refers to depriving the criminals the capacity to involve in crime through detention in courts or capital punishment (Zimring & Hawkins, 1995). Deterrence commonly referred to as punishment given to criminals to prevent them from committing crimes in the future. Rehabilitation is another measure used within the criminal justice system. It is a treatment given to criminals and intended to change the characters of offenders thus, assists in the prevention of future crime.
Other measures include community restraints that refer to the efforts through surveillance and supervision given to offenders in a society to minimize their capacity and opportunity to get involved into criminal activities (Blumstein & Cohen, 1973). Incarceration makes criminals to be confined within the prisons; hence, they are not able to commit crime. In addition, the criminal justice system has also employed the use of structure, discipline and challenge programs that involves the use of physically and mentally stressing experiences to change the behavior of the offenders positively or deter them from future involvement in crime. Finally, a combination of rehabilitation and restraint has been used to ensure that the criminals make changes that are linked with minimizing the possibility of future criminal behavior.
In conclusion, crime prevention is closely related to the criminal justice system because crime prevention is the most important function of the criminal justice system, thus; the better explanation of this relationship is that high crime rates makes countries employ more police. Furthermore, an increase in crime leads to an increase in the population of criminals in police custody, court cells, and in prisons. These are the institutions through which crime prevention programs and practices are delivered. The criminal justice system should aim at forming procedures that serve to protect the innocent and convict the guilty.

Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (1994). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.
Blumstein, A., & Cohen, J. (1973). A theory of the stability of punishment. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 64:197-200.
Zimring, F. E., & Hawkins, G. (1995). Incapacitation: penal confinement and the restraint of crime. New York: Oxford University Press.

A pearl in the storm Tori Murden McClure

A pearl in the Storm
A pearl in the storm is a memoir written by Tori Murden McClure in 1998 about her experiences in the Atlantic Ocean. The book recounts the experiences that Tori went through sailing in the Atlantic Ocean. She is the first woman to sail across the Atlantic Ocean solo on a boat built with plywood, twenty-three foot wide without a motor engine. The book demonstrates the courage, humility, anger, courage, determination, despair, hope tenacity among other attributes of a woman who went above others to demonstrate her quests in adventure.
The book is written based on personal experience of how the journey in the Atlantic Ocean looked like. Tori, narrates her ordeals in the ocean with honesty and emotions. She narrates the experiences she went through, what she expected was not what she found out as she rowed across the ocean. This is captured from the book when she says that, “I know I rowed across the Atlantic to find my heart, but in the beginning, I was not aware that it was missing”. This captivating introduction captures the plot of the book and as the story progresses; indeed, it is true that what she expected turned out to be opposite.
The book is full of inspiration especially to women. Despite the fact that no women had earlier attempted to sail across the ocean, Tori went against this and became the first women to row across the ocean. Rowing across the ocean was left to men due to their masculinity and brevity. Tori, shows courage and inspiration to women fraternity that indeed they have all it takes to achieve what they want in life. It is a motivational book especially to women who have always been left behind and excluded from such activities. The book inspires and motivates people through the narrations of Tori who despite of being a woman was courageous enough to sail across the treacherous ocean.
The book also portrays the theme of courage and determination. Tori, despite being a woman and understanding the dangers inherent in rowing over the ocean with a boat that had no motor, still goes against and sails. No woman in history had attempted to row across the ocean due to the dangers and the risks that had been associated with the task. Despite going through perilous and solitude, conditions she was determined to achieve her mission of sailing over the Atlantic. She wanted to achieve her mission, which she finally did. For instance, while sailing she was hit by one of the worst hurricane that hit the northern hurricane. This hurricane nearly killed her but fortunately, she survived. She also lost communications channels with the shore, lost updates on the locations and the weather in the Gulf Stream but still kept on going. This experience shows a woman who was determined to conquer the world and achieve her objectives.
Humility is also one of the major attributes that comes out clearly in the story by Tori in her book, “A pearl in the storm”. Tori shows humility by putting on a spirited heart despite many challenges that she encounters as she sails across the ocean. On her first sail, she is overwhelmed by the hurricanes in the sea but despite this, she is determined to achieve her mission. She never gives up but rather attempts the second time, which sees her achieve her dream. She manages to row for eighty-one days in the ocean, covering a distance of 4,767 kilometers (Tori 49). This devotion and determination shows a woman who believed in herself and who sought to fulfill her mission.
Tenacity is yet another theme that the book portrays. This attribute is exhibited on how persistence the author-Tori is in trying to achieve her mission. She does not give up with her mission despite encountering a number of challenges on her journey. One of the challenges of pearl that she encounters is the fact that no woman has ever dared to cross the ocean as only men are supposed to. Second is that, the journey is full of dangers such as hurricanes which nearly took her life, breakdown in communications, bad weather and lack of information on location/direction. Her tenacity or rather firmness makes her to try crossing the ocean for the second time, which she manages successfully.
Tori narrate the pain, which she suffered while rowing across the ocean. The adventure was not that rosy, as she had expected. Challenges she was exposed were unbearable and at some point, she nearly lost her own life when hurricanes hit her. The journey was also very long and tiring. Other challenges include bad weather and lack of information on the direction or the location that could have caused heavily. However, despite going through these numerous pains, she eventually manages to overcome them and successfully attains her mission becoming the first women to successful cross the ocean.
The story also shows how knowledge is important and what it takes to attain that knowledge. Tori, is not contended with how women are seen in the society. Men in the society overlook or look down upon women because of their gender. However, Tori, is not of the view and she is contended and optimistic that just like men, women have the potential. She is a woman who believes that women can even do better than women and that rowing across the Atlantic is a venture that was going to make here even wiser. She writes, “I did not expect the Atlantic to make me a better person. But I did expect the Atlantic to make me a wiser person” (Tori 145). Indeed as per her words, she emerges victorious and even learns more about rowing through the challenges and experiences she went through travelling across the ocean. She helps to motivate human beings in the sense that, it is not possible for a person to progress in their life or acquire more skills without having to soil their hands or without testing their limits. She did not look down upon herself despite being a woman, but rather, she believed in herself and went above her limits by risking her own life. By risking her own life, she manages to successful row across the ocean, which made her more knowledgeable on how the ocean looks like.
Tori, through his own experiences as noted in the book, elicit mixed reactions among men and women. For instance, questions on double standards on achievements of women and men come out clearly whether she is a good role model for boys and girls or not. The fact that, Tori is a woman and has managed to achieve her mission despite her gender in the society is strength to women. This strength therefore makes her acts as a role model to fellow women that indeed they can also achieve their goals if they keep on working hard.
In the memoir, Tori also speak of helplessness and compare this with love. Helplessness is experienced often in his experiences. From the onset, she receives resentment from the male chauvinism who underrates women because of their gender. This state leaves women with no hope and support to help then achieve their missions. Hopelessness is also exhibited when Tori goes through tribulations in the oceans. She losses direction and is struck by hurricanes which nearly swept her away.
After failing to make it through on his first trial, Tori did not give up. She still vowed to continue with her quest and achieve her mission. She notes, ‘this time, things will be different”. This shows her determination to succeed in the second trip, which she eventually succeeded.
In conclusion, the story as narrated by Tori is a life experience. It is a story that has a lot of challenges but yet helped Tori to discover herself. The book has many lessons that its readers can learn from. One of the lessons that the book highlights is that, human beings have the potential of discovering more about what they aspire to achieve regardless of their gender. Tori, was a woman and she made it to become the firs woman to sail across the Atlantic Ocean. Even with many challenges and dangers involved, her dedication, determination, courage, hope and tenacity saw her achieve her dreams. When I read this book, I felt encouraged and motivated; I was made to believe that, as a human being we all have the potential of reaching and fulfilling our objectives in life. The book “a pearl in the storm by Tori is indeed a motivation and an inspiration literacy work that is narrated in a honesty and emotional pitch to capture and arouse the readers emotions.

Work Cited
Tori, McClure. A pearl in the storm: How I found my heart in the middle of the ocean. Collins Publishers: New York. 2009. Print.

The Effect of 9/11 on Muslims in the U.S

The September 11 2001 terrorist attack in America was a tragedy that caught US people and government unaware. The attack generated a lot of animosity among the Muslim community and Arabs that live in United States. The attack exemplified the rift that had for a long period of time been manifested between the two countries. The effects the attack caused on Muslim inhabitants are diverse as the paper shows.
According to Faisal and William, as per the report released by council of American-Islamic Relations, the level of discrimination complaints in US increased by 65% by the end of 2002 (5). In the year 2003 and 2004, the level of complaints hiked up by 70% and 49% respectively. These statistics demonstrate the magnitude and the impact of the attack on the people, especially the Muslims. American people viewed their Muslim counterpart as their enemies and therefore did not want to associate with them. This discrimination was evidenced in provision of employment opportunities and even in business. Discrimination was also witnessed in terms of trade. American cut-off trading links with most of the Arabs countries and this impacted negatively on most of the Arabs residing in US. In survey carried out in 2007 on 1050, Muslims that lived in US indicated that 53% of them agreed that it was difficult to be a Muslim- Americans since the terror struck (Faisal and William 6). Young Muslims aged between the age of 18-29 lived under suspicion because of the terror and fear of being suspected to be the likely perpetrators of terrorist activities by the American Government.
After the attack, most Muslims experienced high increase in civil rights violations. Most of the violation happened at their work place. The Muslim workers were looked down upon and discriminated because of their country of origin and religious affiliation. This down look de-motivated most of the Muslim workers at their places of work. Examples of isolations included, poor working conditions, unnecessary retrenchment, decrease in salaries, lack of promotions among many other work related problems.
Another effect the September 11 attack had on Muslims residing in America was that it resulted into fear and suspicion (Louise 34). Most of the Muslims lived with fear due to threats of deportation and discrimination. Therefore, this made many of them to live in silent without voicing their demands for fear of deportation or implication in the terrorist activities. This fear and anxiety among the Muslins was generated when the US government came up with various policies and legal responses that aimed at curbing future terrorist attacks. For instance, there was mass round –up of the Muslims and the Arab immigrants that began in 2002. Other programmes included special registration program that was initiated in 2002 but later abolished in 2003 (Leonard 21). Such programs aimed at reducing the risk of future terrorist attacks. The programs instilled fear and created isolations among the Muslim community in US.
Even though the attack may not have resulted in decreased employment rate of the Muslims in Us, it led to resulted to a reduction of between 14% to16% of real weekly earnings of Muslims aged between 21 and 54 years (Louise 34). The decrease in earnings resulted to some of the Muslims changing from their occupation and their industry occupations.
Another effect of the attack caused was a reduction in the level of internal mobility of the muslins that lived in US. This reduction may have been necessitated by the fear by many Muslims born from the attack and the stereotypes that had been leveled against them as being terrorists and furthering the missions of the terrorists groups. Therefore, they limited their movement to avoid negative perception by their American counterparts.
Aftermath of the terrorist attack affected mostly young Muslims immigrants (Angela 32). Most of them were obliged to work for short hours, their incomes were reduced and even some lost their employment. The most affected Muslims were those from terrorist known countries such as Iran, Afghanistan and Middle East. However, these stereotypes and effects only lasted for a short while since from 2004; the situation seemed to have changed (Davila and Mora 45).
Participation in the labor market by majority Muslim youths also decreased. This decrease was as a result of fear and discrimination that was experienced against the Muslims. The anti-terrorism programs and other laws that were initiated in 2002 also contributed to low participation in the labor market by most of the Muslim youths.
According to Louise, the launch of anti-terrorism initiatives and policies after the attack had profound negative implications to the Muslim and Arab community living in the US (7). The policies were drafted solely to fight and to target the Muslim community and especially the terrorists. For instance, in late October 2001, the visas of all non-immigrants applications of men of between the age of 18 and 45 was put on-hold and taken through a tight scrutiny (Faisal and William 8). This was done in an effort to eliminate all terror groups. The practice instilled fear and anxiety among the Muslim immigrants who viewed themselves as targets.
The attack also resulted to religious intolerance in US between the Christian and the Muslims. Since the terrorists who planned and executed the attack were Muslim insurgent with Islamic faith, this caused a lot of suspicion among Americas who hold different religious inclination-Christianity. The attack therefore, necessitated, people holding certain religious ideologies to come or group together against the others. The perception that it was the Muslims that were behind the attack, made it possible for Americans to seclude themselves from the Muslims who also fought to defend their religious ideologies and teachings. A good example of the religious intolerance and differences manifested when a Muslim group planned to build their Islamic community center and a mosque at Ground zero. Many Americans opposed the move and the location at which the mosque was to be built citing that Muslims were killers as they killed them through the terror attack on September 11, 2001(Faisal and William 13). This, therefore, demonstrates clearly, how the attack hurt American people. It led to hatred and negative attitude between the Muslims and Americans especially on grounds of their faith.
The terrorist act also affected most Muslims living in US as their religious ideologies and beliefs became under scrutiny. The mainstream US people viewed their religious teachings as improper since they felt that they agitated for bloodshed. The Muslims were subjected to tighter scrutiny making them live in fear and isolation because they were minority and every other Americans seemed to think that they were not fit to be in their midst (Faisal and William 14).
The attack caused fear, trauma to the Muslim community. The US relationship with radical Muslim countries was not good for a while and therefore, those immigrants from such countries such as Afghanistan, Iran lived in fear of their own live. The attack caused a lot of anger on the side of American government, which saw the number of security personnel increased, scrutiny increased, security warnings were all over in airports and in any public place due to a tough stance against terror. This kind of live was traumatizing and difficult to bear to most Muslims who were the central point of target.
The US September 11, 2001 terrorist attack indeed left a big mark on the American soil. The terror was one of its kind that saw US government put in place stringent measures to curb any future attacks. The Muslim immigrants in US were one of the most affected victims of the attack even though they were not directly or indirectly involved. The Muslims in US received highest level of criticism and stereotypes. They were discriminated in terms of employment, and general labor issues. There working hours and weekly wages were reduced, they lived in fear and anxiety and experienced a lot of religious discrimination. For instance, they were denied to build a mosque in the Ground zero because of their religious affiliations. It is therefore evident that, the attack that targeted US had several implications to the Muslims living in US. The legal responses and the government policies that were enacted such as “The special Registration” programs aimed at ensuring that all Muslims with bad intentions to cause terror was nested. Such programs not only isolated the Muslims but they made them to live in anxiety and fear in the US. The fact remains that, the attack did more injustice to the Muslim immigrants. It made their lives more difficult and troublesome. Regardless of the Muslims sufferings, to some level it is justified for the Us Government initiative to ensure that its country was safe and secure.

Works Cited
Angela, Rabasa. The Muslim world after 9/11. Rand Corporation: New York. 2011. Print.
Faisal, Rabby and William Rodgers. Post 9-11 U.S. Muslim Labor Market Outcomes. 2009. Web. 25 July 2012.
Davila Alberto and Mora Marie. Changes in the Earnings of Arab Men in the US Between 2000 and 2002. Journal of Population Economics, (2005) 18: 587-60. Print.
Kaestner, Robert, Kaushal Neeraj and Reimers Cordelia. Labor Market Effects of September 11th on Arab and Muslim Residents of the United States. The Journal of Human Resources, 42.2:(2007), 34-86. Print.
Leonard, Karen. Muslims in the United States. The State of Research. 2003. Print.
Louise, Cainkar. Post 9/11 domestic policies affecting U.S Arabs and Muslims: A brief Review. 2011. Web. 25 July 2012.