Intelligence in Different Aspects
The definition and use of the word differ with respect to the geographical region, the cultures, and the civilization. However, a standard definition of English words is provided for in the dictionaries. A noun of attention in the discussion of this paper is intelligence. The definition and understanding of the noun intelligence arouse arguments for the right use and application in the different circumstances. At a psychological aspect, intelligence refers to an intellectual functioning of an individual’s brain, to mean the cognition and mental processes of the brain (study, memorization, and categorization) are applied in the finding of facts, analysis of conditions and making of a conclusive meaning to the concept (Wesley 20). At a different perspective, intelligence is the ability to solve a problem, adapt and learn experiences with less difficulty, creativity, and the ability to judge, comprehend, and to reason. An argument definition of intelligence is provided for in this paper with respect to the view from different perspectives defining the term.
A number of terms are used to define intelligence with a different understanding of the use and the conditions that the word is used. The different definitions use different words but meaning the same making the definitions interrelated in a way. Clever, bright, and smart are some of the words commonly inter-used to define the word intelligently. According to Prunckun (16), intelligence is determined by comparing the performance of an individual with others. IQ (Intelligence Quotient) seeks to determine the performance of an individual with people of the same age. The results are then measured with the best performer and the average performance that the age group can achieve in doing the test. The IQ tests are aimed at measuring the mental age (MA) that is associated with a given chronological age (CA). Prunckun (15) asserts the intelligence of human beings is a feeling rather than the fact that he, or she believes. Furthermore, intelligence of every human being goes hand in hand with intellect, which refers to the cognitive part of humans. However, in determining intelligence of a human being, Cianciolo and Sternberg (33) suggests that a number of factors trigger intelligence these being the possible in terms of gender of a child, the immediate environments that children are brought up in, and the society they are raised.
Different cultures have their different regard to intelligence. In the western countries, intelligence refers to a bright student mostly referred to as smart. The students referred to as smart are those who are excellent in their performance, in class work and extra-curricular activities. In African countries, however, intelligent students are students who perform well in their class work. Asian countries, on the other hand, define the term intelligent by an excellent performance in class and practical activities that are outside the class environments. The child’s potential is dictated by the genes that are inherited from their parents, genotype-environment interaction, and the gender of a child. In measuring intelligence among boys and girls, they tend to show similarities in the different features (Cianciolo and Sternberg 44). On the other hand, in skills, boys and girls have different intelligence prowess.
While girls are fluent in verbal, writing, and perceptual skills as early as when they are still toddlers, boys are strong in visual-spatial processing, science, and mathematical problem-solving skills as they develop. From a tender age, girls take interest in verbal exercises, writing materials and perceptual exercises with a natural liking. Their interests in these exercises improve as they grow. However, in the different environments that they are raised in, there is a possibility of a reduced interest in such activities. Similarly, boys develop an interest in practical exercises and their interests develop as they grow. However, there are factors that Ceci (130) considers affecting the development of a child’s intelligence as he, or she grows. They either support the growth or thwart the development. The part such as the environments that children are raised in also has an effect on the intelligence levels of children. Cianciolo and Sternberg (39) define intelligence in terms of the education that an individual has attained from his or her attendance in school or academic courses. Ceci (130) states, a school environment provides the student with a stimulating intellectual trigger of the brain to increase their understanding, perception, and cognition of the skills and concepts taught. Ceci (130) relates the society and the intelligence of children with respect to the access that they have to quality education and other resources for learning. Children from a wealthy family are intelligent compared to children from a poor family background.
A different definition of intelligence factors on the features that an intelligent person does in the daily activities. However, Wesley (17) gives a classification of nine types of intelligence associated with human beings. Naturalist intelligent people with the ability to identify with the environment, discern features in the natural world, and identify with the normal life situations. Musical intelligence is the ability to understand music pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tones that are useful in the creation of music, composing, or conducting. The intelligence in music is evident in the great musicians, vocalists, and the listeners who take an interest in understanding the different genres and composition.
Logical-Mathematical intelligence is the ability to compute, enumerate, or present propositions for hypothesis in solving mathematical problems. Another category of intelligence has the name of existential intelligence, which refers to an adaptive intelligence in determining the history of man, life, and the societal traditions that human beings have passed through in the evolution. Interpersonal intelligence is a unique trait that allows an individual interacts with others with lots of ease. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is categorized as another classification of intelligence with individuals having the ability of perfecting time, and interrelationship of the body and the mind to accomplish a task. Linguistic intelligence is a unique trait that allows an individual to use language as an expression of complex meanings (Goertzel 28). Another intelligence category is intra-personal intelligence, which is the understanding of personal feelings and thoughts and turns these personal traits to the advantage and progression of oneself. Lastly, Wesley (22) describes spatial intelligence as the last category of intelligence, which refers to the ability of an individual to reflect in three dimensions. With the information at hand, a spatially intelligent person can determine additional information that can help him or her identify with the surroundings that he or she is. Sailors have the capability of approximating a distance that they are to cover, or identify new routes that will still enable him reach a port.
However, the different categories of intelligence mean differently among different cultures in the world. In western countries, the experience of a child is the most important factor considered in his or her development. Since their tender ages, they are nurtured to appreciate the gifts they have and efforts are made to ensure they develop their talents. However, other countries like in Asia, the talents of children make less importance to the poor families. Their interest is in the education of their child and securing a job. The child on his or her own has to identify with their talents and nurture it to perfection. Developing countries in other parts of the world also has less consideration on the talent development of a child at the tender age. Efforts are made in the ages after adolescent when the child can make a living out of the ability that he or she has found out on his or her own.
According to Cianciolo and Sternberg (20), intelligent people can be uniquely singled from a group by the different characters that they have. An intelligent person listens to their intuition and act according to their ideologies on the environments. The decisions that intelligent people make may be contrary to the standard methods for doing projects, but they base their argument on what they consider the best procedure. Intelligent people trust in themselves and not the authority. Their actions are considerations of what the authority stipulates and issues that are related with the actions taken. If they believe that the authority is not to their benefit, then they devise new methods to attain the set goals. In acting on their intuition, intelligent individuals are aware of their personal weaknesses, strengths, values, and principles and they have a conviction in the outcomes of their beliefs to solve the problems and make the best out of their lives. Intelligent people have the ability to learn from experiences and avoid doing the same mistake, but rather make efforts to make the best out of their failure in the future. The experiences that intelligent people experience is a learning process to them compared to an average child or person whom they will approach the situation without considering and not learn a lesson from the experience.
An intelligent person thinks outside the normal situation required of him or her. They can easily handle new ideas, and new methods of activities, and still come up with ideas to handle the situation. The situation that they find themselves in is a platform for them to identify radical ways of solving a problem. In the event of coming up with a new idea, intelligent people approach the situations with an open mind that they take sides with the different arguments. However, as per their conception of an idea, intelligent people can determine a good support of an argument even from the different rationales and paradoxes presented. Intelligent people are responsive to facts and have an internal drive towards attaining the best even before its stipulated time. They can realize that the problem is going to improve from a misdeed that an individual has done and find a solution to the problem before help is needed. Therefore, in case there is a problem, they can offer their support to resolve the problem.
Intelligent individuals have the experience of identifying with areas to access information. Despite the human defect to have knowledge of everything, intelligent people can be resourceful in identifying areas and taking part in solution finding. Intelligent people strike out with their ever-growing interest to learn new things or remind themselves of experiences (Cianciolo and Sternberg 43). The current events, issues, and techniques are subjects of interest to intelligent people as they are learning tools to make the best out of themselves. Intelligent people have set goals, mission, objectives, and purpose for their actions. They are productive in their work as they operate in a schedule they believe will be a success. In their involvement, in solving problems, however, intelligent people are concerned about teaching other on the new methods. The learning process is a continuous event in their lives and the people around them are to share the same information that they have (Cianciolo and Sternberg 31).
The definition of words and their application stirs issues concerning the best definition and the conditions that they describe. However, the different definitions portray a similarity in the definitions that make them related and implying the same concept. Intelligence, for instance, has been inter-used in different conditions each with a different approach but applying to same conditions. Intelligence has been measured in terms of performance of students with relation to their age and the standard average performance expected of their age. However, exact definition about how intelligent someone is or not is still to be defined. Unique traits, however, associated with intelligent people differentiate them with average people. However, different cultures have a different perspective on the meaning of intelligence and the importance of developing the abilities that children show at tender ages as they grow.
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